Imagine, a number of particles are finite in the universe, also, take the number of arrangement as finite.
Now imagine sides represent all the possible arrangement of a dice. Now start throwing the dice. As the number of possible arrangement is huge, the probability of predicting the next arrangement is almost zero.
As you can see in the real world also, we cannot go from one state to another just randomly.
Imagine, a number of particles are infinite, so the number of arrangement will also be infinite. Also assume that all arrangements are equally likely to occur. Thus, probability of predicting the next arrangement is zero as a number of arrangement is infinite. So the result is same as condition 1
As we can see, we can disapprove the first two conditions by looking at our real world.
Now imagine a number of particles are finite, also the number of arrangements are finite. But all arrangements are not equally likely to occur.
It requires little imagination
At each state, it can be only at one position (x), and got to another position (y). The probability of going from one position to another is 1.
Now look at state A and state B.
Before saying it as random, we have to ask, what determines the particle going from X to Y.
The answer should be obviously other particles. So going from X to Y is deterministic, as a result, the complete universe can be deterministic.
The number of particles is finite, but the number of arrangements is infinite. But all arrangements are not equally likely to occur.
The result is similar to condition 3, but the consequence will be time will run till infinite, not circular or repetitive like condition 3. This is also compatible with the real world, as space is just one (particles are many), so, number or arrangements will be infinite.
The number of particles is infinite, so the number of arrangements is infinite. But all arrangements are not equally likely to occur.
The result may be same as condition 4.
If universe would be unpredictable, then we would never make predictions. We could not ask a question such as how, why, etc because it's not predictable.
Our universe can only be as it is because it is deterministic
or semi-deterministic (if there is a minute ± error in the motion from going one state to another).
(e.g. instead of going point position for X to Y accurately, Y position is spread with femtometer radius of sphere, and particle can stay anywhere within Y)
So, the message is in order to bring a change, it should be a collective effort for lots of particles, that is lots of particles has to make desired error (or free choice that is limited to e.g. a femtometer), to have desired future we want.
You have to make the initial conditions right and also continue the right conditions (which is easy) to have desired results. Evolution has done most of its job to bring initial condition right, we only need to continue the right conditions.
Particle I mean quantum fluctuations that occupy some space.